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Working Papers

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Study of the value chain of the tourism sector in Angola as an alternative economic, social, and environmental development strategy under the Prodesi programme

Working Paper 190/2023: Study of the value chain of the tourism sector in Angola as an alternative economic, social, and environmental development strategy under the Prodesi programme


Abstract:

Angola has been facing several economic and social problems, with one of the most important being related to the country’s long tradition of dependency on oil as a major external revenue. Due to this situation, the country’s income has been slowing and there is a need to find alternative strategies to increase the liquidity of the economy without which Angola would lack the necessary funds to increase investment and proceed with adequate policies to combat social exclusion and eradicate the flows of poverty. Aware of this situation, the government implemented the national PRODESI project, whose aim is to accelerate the process of the diversification of the nation’s economy. To this end, the project aims to promote production and exports in the non-oil sectors, as well as in sectors with a strong potential for import substitution. One of these areas is tourism, as a means of developing some of the country’s regions and provinces, and also in order to benefit populations living in worse conditions, whilst diversifying the economic restrictions. The focus of actions in PRODESI foresees that the to accelerate the diversification of the economy, whether through import substitution or through diversification and an increase in exports, will be directed towards the production of goods and services or the implementation of new strategies designed to gain critical mass and create intra and intersectoral relationships, such as in the case of tourism. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to identify the main weaknesses of the core value chain of tourism and to propose a set of measures and recommendations to be implemented within the scope of PRODESI. The main objective is to ensure that this activity effectively contributes to diversifying Angola’s economy in a sustainable path and that it helps leverage the increase in national production in a faster and more efficient way and thus significantly help decrease the dependency on imports and increase the export basis, which can be achieved through adopting a strategy of diversification, based on both international and national tourism. 3 Methodologically, several studies were consulted and various meetings and in-depth field visits were made, between January and March 2000, in the provinces of Luanda, Malange, Huíla, and Namibe. Several interviews were carried out up until 2021with major players (ranging from ministers through to national directors and other experts) and tourist organizations (Ministries, Travel Agencies, and entrepreneurs). It is estimated that in the next 10 years Sub-Saharan Africa will register a growth in tourism superior to the global average, regardless of the COVID pandemic. Study of the Value Chain of the Tourism Sector in Angola as an Alternative Economic, Social, and Environmental Development Strategy Under the Prodesi Programme concluded that even though tourism in Angola still faces a deficit at several levels, the country nevertheless has a set of natural resources and tourism attributes that, if properly explored and used, could provide an alternative way for the future development of Angola’s society. Angola still faces residual tourism receipts from tourism activity as well as in total international incoming tourists, and therefore Angola’s national government may have a huge opportunity to implement a suitable tourism strategy (both for internal and external flows), in order to not only reinforce its importance but also to benefit the population, fight poverty, and diversify economic activities, as defined in the PRODESI strategy.

 

Quotation:

Sarmento, E.M. 2023. “Study of the Value Chain of the Tourism Sector in Angola as an Alternative Economic, Social, and Environmental Development Strategy Under the Prodesi Programme“. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 190/2023

Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa

Working Paper 189/2023: Fragilities and shocks effects on households and communities in West Africa


Abstract:

Shocks are drivers of fragility yet most works on fragility in Africa use the tag “fragile state(s)” with less focus on the drivers of fragility in its institutions, states, and economies. Shocks are cardinal to the entrenchment or stability of any system. The Covid-19 pandemic revealed how fragile the world is including the “developed” or “advanced” systems. Today, households, businesses, and communities in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa suffer the effects of a triple whammy (climate change, the pandemic and Russia/Ukraine War) including effects of history and an unfavourable global system all of which leaves them in hunger, poverty and vulnerable conditions. Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa used secondary sources to revisit the effects of these shocks on households, and communities in West Africa through the lens of common resources. The recent shocks effects prevalent in all these countries is higher than reported and would affect West Africa´s growing population in the foreseeable future with the absence of safety nets or effective interventions. The absence of shocks preparation in the subregion is not sustainable and adds up to the sustenance of the revolving circle of fragility in the subregion.

 

Quotation:

Agulonye, U.V.P. 2023. “Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa“. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 189/2023

A Identidade Nacional na Guiné-bissau - Um ensaio exploratório inspirado na metodologia de J.Cheek, S.Briggs, S.Smith e L.Tropp

Working Paper 188/2023: A identidade nacional na Guiné-Bissau: um ensaio exploratório inspirado na metodologia de J.Cheek, S.Briggs, S.Smith e L.Tropp


Abstract:

The investigation of A Identidade Nacional na Guiné-Bissau – Um ensaio exploratório inspirado na metodologia de J.Cheek, S.Briggs, S.Smith e L.Tropp is defined as exploratory and aims to evaluate whether the methodology of inquiry and analysis of identity. created by J. Cheek, S. Briggs, S. Smith and L. Tropp, can be adapted to a fragile state like Guinea-Bissau. This methodology consists in the assessment of the importance attributed by the respondents of 70 sentences from which the characteristics of individual and social identity (family and collective) are extracted. The sentences were sent by digital means to 102 Guineans known in person or only by Facebook with request for response and dissemination and obtained 183 responses. These answers, calculated according to the methodology adopted, allowed to define some identity characteristics of the respondents. We tried to interpret these results using other surveys made since 2014 in Guinea-Bissau with different themes. It is concluded by realizing that this is a method that can contribute to the knowledge of the national identity of Guineans, but insufficient. This conclusion remains to be demonstrated if it is carried out with a statistically significant sample.

 

Quotation:

Sangreman, C., Magalhães, J., Faria, R. (2023). “A Identidade Nacional na Guiné-Bissau – Um ensaio exploratório inspirado na metodologia de J.Cheek, S.Briggs, S.Smith e L.Tropp“. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 188/2023

Resiliência em Países Frágeis - uma investigação exploratória em curso

Working Paper 187/2022: Resiliência em Países Frágeis – uma investigação exploratória em curso


Abstract:

Resiliência em Países Frágeis – uma investigação exploratória em curso started in 2017 when the director of a service directorate of the Joint Research Center, at ECAS in Geneva, invited Prof. Carlos Sangreman to an exploratory study on resilience in Guinea-Bissau with the title Context specific risk perception and resilience patterns for individuals and communities (urban/non-urban) – the case of people in Guinea-Bissau. The study was carried out on the basis of the survey whose form is included in this Working Paper, gave rise to the attached article in an international journal and to a PhD thesis in progress at the University of Aveiro. The partnership between JRC and Cesa also involved Professor Alexandre Abreu and Master Jessica Santos, as well as Carlos Sangreman. From the JRC were Chistophe Quétel, Guy Bourdin and Ilektra Lemi. A survey was conducted in all regions and capital of the country to 210 households, with a previous pilot to 36 to refine the questionnaire in this partnership: project Enquêtes de terrain sur la perception du risque et la résilience des ménages en Guinée-Bissau Projet: Ares(2018)2381703 – 04/05/2018. Centre Commun de Recherche (JRC) de la Commission Européenne, Direction E, and CESA – Centre for Studies on Africa and Development of the University of Lisbon.

 

Quotation:

Sangreman, C., Martins, D., Quetel, C. Abreu, A. e Bourdin, G. (2022). “Resiliência em Países Frágeis – uma investigação exploratória em curso”. CEsA/CSG/ISEG/ULisboa – Documentos de Trabalho nº 186/2022

Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique

Working Paper 186/2022: Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique


Abstract:

The processes of state and nation building begin soon after independence and establish a link between them, although each has its own logic. While the nation refers to collective identity, the State refers to the existence of a central-level political authority, respected throughout the territory. As evidenced during the text, a significant part of the State structure that emerged after national independence was the result of the Portuguese colonial legacy, idealized by FRELIMO’s ruling elite and implemented as a project of formation of the “New Man”, which occurred in an imperative way and through uniformizing policies. Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique analyses the process of State and Nation building in Mozambique, whose population is characterised by a diversity of ethnicities. The first section presents a reflection on the foundations, the main actors and the actions towards the formation of the nation-state. In the second, we discuss the relationship between nationalism and socialist ideology, the latter interpreted in the post-independence period as the only path that would lead to development and to a society free from exploitation. With the 1990 constitution, a new order of political and economic liberalisation came into force. We seek to critically examine the political process underway in the country, in defiance of the dominant conceptions in the media, government, business and academic circles. To this end, we rely on bibliographic research and official documents, in addition to the experiences of two scholars who develop work in Quelimane, capital of Zambézia province in central Mozambique.

 

Quotation:

De Melo, C. M., Material Alves, G. e Martins, M. D. (2022). “Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique”. CEsA/CSG/ISEG/ULisboa – Documentos de Trabalho nº 186/2022

Conflict resolution interventions in the conflict cycle

Working Paper 185/2021: Conflict Resolution Interventions in the Conflict Cycle


Abstract:

The objective of this article is to describe the Conflict Resolution interventions used throughout the conflict cycle. The article first presents five levels of conflict intensity of the conflict cycle, namely the levels of Stable Peace, Unstable Peace, Conflict, Crisis, and War. Each level of conflict intensity is characterized by analyzing the variables of Galtung’s conflict triangle (behavior, attitudes, and goals), actors’ perceptions (friend, rival, and enemy), and the dominant strategy of interaction between actors (positive-sum, compromise, zero-sum, and negative-sum). Each level is illustrated with typical events associated with civil wars and wars between states and proposes threshold events of a possible change in the level of conflict intensity. The article then presents a set of Conflict Resolution approaches that can be carried out in each of the conflict intensity levels of the escalation and de escalation periods of the conflict cycle. Conflict Resolution is subdivided between interventions whose main objective is to contain violent conflict, here called Conflict Management, and interventions with a main objective of solving political problems, which can be Conflict Prevention, if they occur in the period of conflict escalation, or Conflict Termination, if they occur in the period of conflict de escalation. In Conflict Management we identify the interventions of: Crisis Management; Unilateral and Joint Internal Management; External Management in the form of Peacemaking or Peace Enforcement, and Traditional Peacekeeping. In Conflict Prevention we identify Structural and Direct Prevention. In Conflict Termination we identify Multidimensional Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding and Peace Consolidation (associated to Conflict Transformation). Additionally, we present two alternative approaches, Cosmopolitan Peace and Critical Approaches.

 

Quotation:

Sousa, Ricardo Real P. de e Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira (2021). “Conflict resolution interventions in the conflict cycle”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG Documentos de Trabalho nº 185/2021.

Dans le dernier sursaut de l’Estado da Índia (1951-1961)

Working Paper 183/2021: Dans le Dernier Sursaut de l’Estado da Índia (1951-1961): Témoignages inédits de deux femmes portugaises


Abstract:

During the last decade of Estado da Índia, the testimonies of two Portuguese women who embark on a trip to Goa have caught our attention, getting us to write Dans le dernier sursaut de l’Estado da Índia (1951-1961) : témoignages inédits de deux femmes portugaises. Born in 1926 and part of the first generation of Estado Novo, the authors belong to an educated elite and share an acute political awareness of the regime, choosing even to engage in the metropolis opposition movements. They left Portugal for Goa, the territory of their political exile, a society totally alien to them and an important moment of personal experience. The last decade of the Portuguese domination sign the last burst of Estado da Índia which is moving towards the return of its territories to the Indian Union in 1961. The stories left by these two women articulate a history of the Portuguese empire, learned on school benches, portraying an experience of the Salazarist regime and the confrontation of the authors’ experience in Goa. There they make their way on a tightrope, created both by the distance to the colonial administration and by the difficult penetrability of Goan society. In this interface and stemming from an everyday of existential precariousness, they get to know this society and engage in the cultural and political challenges that cross it. Back in Portugal and later on, one of the authors write her memories and the other wish for the exposure of the letters, that she daily written to her family . The memoirs and letters constitute a counterpoint testimony, on the one hand to that of the Portuguese of the Empire (whose statuses and belonging were defined in a colonial society) and, on the other, to that of the diasporas belonging to the Empire (Portuguese, Goans , Indians) by where it is also interesting to read the center from its periphery. Their testimonies and their reflections have very current accents on the way of writing, of thinking and living on existential, material, and symbolic borders that both separate and unite people.

 

Quotation:

Khouri, Nicole e Joana Pereira Leite (2021). “Dans le dernier sursaut de l’Estado da Índia (1951-1961) : témoignages inédits de deux femmes portugaises”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG –Documentos de Trabalho nº 183/2021.

PAIGC a face do monopartidarismo na Guiné-Bissau (1974 a 1990)

Working Paper 182/2021: PAIGC a Face do Monopartidarismo na Guiné-Bissau (1974 a 1990)


Abstract:

The African Party for Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) officially took control of political power in Guinea-Bissau in 1974, and for sixteen years has starred in the political scene with a single-party regime – a military dictatorship–with repressive practices as a method to control the opposition, intimidate and maintain power. Our purpose in PAIGC a face do monopartidarismo na Guiné-Bissau (1974 a 1990) is to verify why the party that was for a long time at the forefront of the country, acting as the only political force that controlled the state apparatus, had difficulty executing its main government proposals. For this we seek the following questions: What influence did colonization have on the formation of the PAIGC? Why did the PAIGC face difficulties and were forced to lose its binational identity considered as one of the bases of its ideological beginning? Why in the post-coup period of 1980 could the party not prevent other successive violent conflicts? Was social and ethnic divisionism noted in the internal structures of the PAIGC? The answer may be among other factors: in the legacy left by the colonial past, in the heterogeneity of the national social structure and in the contradictions resulting from the struggle for power within the PAIGC itself. Although, despite the difficulties that are observable, it cannot be refuted its importance as an important player in the construction of national political history.

 

Quotation:

Semedo, Rui Jorge (2021). “PAIGC a face do monopartidarismo na Guiné-Bissau (1974 a 1990)”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho 182/2021.

A vulnerabilidade à pobreza das mulheres responsáveis por famílias monoparentais no Brasil e o papel das políticas públicas

Working Paper 181/2021: A Vulnerabilidade à Pobreza das Mulheres Responsáveis por Famílias Monoparentais no Brasil e o Papel das Políticas Públicas


Abstract:

The deterioration of women’s income, and their consequent vulnerability to poverty, is particularly critical in the case of women who are the head of single-parent families – being them the only provider to the household, gender inequalities in the labor market affect them more significantly. A Vulnerabilidade à Pobreza das Mulheres Responsáveis por Famílias Monoparentais no Brasil e o Papel das Políticas Públicas seeks to understand the life experiences of these women, in Brazil, as well as the role of the State in alleviating their economic and social difficulties, where the effect of the Bolsa Família Programme will be studied in particular. The analysis of the Brazilian reality is enhanced by the presentation of relevant official statistics, complemented by a qualitative methodological approach based on semi-structured interviews conducted with women in this situation. It is concluded that their life experiences are affected by several hardships that are still relatively under-researched, but also by positive aspects related to their condition as single parents, above all in terms of their autonomy and perception of greater emancipation, as well as living in a safe and emotionaly stable environment.

 

Quotation:

Araújo, Clareana Lopes de e Sara Falcão Casaca (2021). “A vulnerabilidade à pobreza das mulheres responsáveis por famílias monoparentais no Brasil e o papel das políticas públicas”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 181/2021.

O elemento angolar de São Tomé: uma discussão da sua origem

Working Paper 180/2021: O Elemento Angolar de São Tomé: Uma discussão da sua origem


Abstract:

São Tomé and Príncipe is a small archipelago in the Gulf of Guinea formed by two main islands, namely: the island of São Tomé, which is the larger of the two, and the island of Príncipe. Its total area is 997 km2 (Cf. BM, BdP) and is approximately 300 km from the west coast of the African continent. The archipelago was colonized by Portugal between 1485 and 1974 and became independent on July 12, 1975, after a seven-month transition period. The territory was populated with exiles, small Jews, many African slaves and some volunteers from Europe. The slave labor regime introduced since the beginning of the settlement was very violent for the African labor in such a way that some found in the escapes to the forests close to the farms a way to escape the mistreatment of the Europeans and live in freedom and subsistence goods and some schemes to compose their survival, namely assaults and attacks on farms to obtain food and women. This population that lived and reproduced in the bush for centuries, unlike an original population, which some believe to have existed, gave rise to the so-called “Angolas” and has been the subject of debates among academics as to its origin. This article discusses this and seeks to clarify the origin of the “Angolar” ethnic group on the island of São Tomé. O Elemento Angolar de São Tomé: Uma discussão da sua origem is divided into three parts: the first part (point 2) discusses the narrative of the shipwreck, the second part (point 3) establishes a relationship between fugitive slaves and “Black Gentiles” and the last point explains the origin of the designation “Angolas ” for that population group in the south of the island of São Tomé.

 

Quotation:

Santo, Armindo Espírito (2021). “O elemento angolar de São Tomé: uma discussão da sua origem”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 180/2021.


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