Brief Paper 1/2015: O acesso à água e ao saneamento nos países em desenvolvimento: a União Europeia, as ONGDs e o caso de Bafatá na Guiné-Bissau
This document is born from the readaptation of the master’s thesis “Access to water and sanitation in developing countries: the European Union, NGDOs and the case of Bafatá in Guinea Bissau” carried out during 2014 and defended in November of the same year. The work is part of the theme of international cooperation with Developing Countries (DP) in the sector of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)3 and aims to investigate how good practices, agreed by international donors, for access to water and sanitation, influence the work of NGDOs operating in this sector. Thus, we sought to analyze how the European Union (EU), the most important donor in the WASH sector at an international level, has influenced the work in the WASH sector of the Portuguese NGDO – TESE – Associação para o Desenvolvimento. We tried to observe how TESE interprets the EU guidelines in the WASH sector, trying to understand if there is a blind adaptation to the guidelines in order to capture the funds, or if, on the contrary, there is a vision that guides the actions of TESE independently the availability of funding. In the first decade of the 2000s, the EU has strengthened its commitment to the WASH sector, funding numerous cooperation projects and actively contributing to the international political debate. Among the criteria that led to the choice of TESE, in addition to its geographical proximity and the opportunity to collaborate with the organization’s members, is the fact that it is one of the few NGDOs in Portugal committed to cooperation in the WASH sector in the Portuguese-speaking space. This, over the last decade, has established itself as a reference organization in the panorama of Portuguese NGDOs, being involved in several projects in the water and sanitation sector. Since its birth until today, there has been a substantial evolution of the organization, which now has a stable structure and well-defined objectives. Over time, TESE defined an intervention model specific to the organization. Among the projects carried out, one stands out, Bafatá Misti Iagu (BMI), co-financed by the EU in Bafatá, Guinea Bissau (GB). This will be the object of analysis as a case study. Between February and May 2014, the daily work of the TESE headquarters in Lisbon was monitored. Documents guiding EU cooperation and funding lines in the WASH sector were analyzed and compared with the results of the case study on Bafatá, writing the intervention context of the BMI project. from the analysis of documents of the projects carried out by TESE, from the evaluations of the projects and from the interviews carried out with current and previous members of the NGDO5. The comparison was mainly focused on: (1) the desired objectives, the target groups, the proposed actions and the approach promoted in the actions; (2) the approach to the key issues of access and management of water services. Here, we sought to compare the principles inherent to institutional and management issues (What is the resource management model that is promoted?), social and economic (What is the value attributed to water, in equity, in human rights, in gender equity? , in the quality of services promoted, and in questions of ownership, price, pricing of services?), and finally environmental, information, education, communication and technology6. This analysis resulted in a substantial approximation between the EU guidelines and the projects carried out by TESE. This result becomes more interesting considering that the line of financing with which TESE financed the BMI project in 2009 did not include specific guidelines on the water sector and the definition of objectives, expected results, activities and more in general. approach and is not subject to EC eligibility criteria in the WASH sector. Regarding the desired objectives, target groups, proposed actions and the approach promoted in the actions, there is a high correspondence of vision. TESE’s actions encompass both an infrastructural component (construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure, implementation of pollution prevention and water protection measures), and measures aimed at improving resource management in order to guarantee the durability of the intervention (awareness of the correct use of resources and education for hygiene, strengthening and management of institutions in the water sector). Among the measures shared by the EU and TESE aimed at resource management is the demand management, which, however, was not applied indiscriminately in the projects carried out by TESE, and each time there was a prior identification of the context and the your needs. The affinity of vision between EC and TESE remains constant, albeit with some difference, looking at the key access and management principles applied in the implementation of the BMI project (See Table A). This did not come about through the opening of a line of financing, but through the identification of the needs and opportunities for cooperation in Bafatá, in a perspective of complementarity and integration with other ongoing initiatives. The expected results were not defined to meet the eligibility conditions of the Call for Proposal -CfP-, but to have the best impact from the point of view of economic, human and environmental sustainability. The definition of these results derives from TESE’s own intervention pattern, which may change according to the context and requirements of the financing lines, but which in substance is not changed. Through the analysis of the projects carried out by TESE, it was possible to identify an intervention model of the organization. This model, the common thread between the projects, is an integral part of its cooperation strategy. Taking into account what has been observed, it can be said that TESE has a vision that guides its actions in the WASH sector, not limiting itself to applying ipsis verbis what is required in the EC CfPs. However, as we have seen, there is a good match between the objectives and good practices approved by the EC and the vision and work of TESE. Comparing the objectives, principles and proposed actions, it can be deduced that, taking as an example the application of the demand management principle, there is no implementation of internationally recognized good practices without a prior analysis of the intervention context.
Document prepared for communication on race at the CEsA 1999 Seminar: The problem of development – historicity and current contributions from a transdisciplinary perspective, Conference Strategic Identities for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gender and Race, 23 June 1999.
The much publicized bankruptcy of G1T1C (Guangdong International Trust and Investment Corporation) in October 1998 coincided with a period of extraordinary turmoil in international financial markets. It was the first time that a financial institution in the R.P. of China, which – it was admitted – enjoyed an implicit guarantee from the Chinese authorities, was allowed to “fall”. This bankruptcy caused relatively significant losses (not yet fully quantified) in Western financial institutions creditors of GITIC. On the other hand, at the same time, the pressure on the dollar and the Hong Kong stock market was taking on extreme proportions, leading the authorities of that PRC Special Administrative Region to similarly extreme responses. Due to these facts, there was no lack of those who considered that China could be the next and decisive episode in the emergence of a situation of financial crash that would eventually extend to the world scale. This perception is, however, devoid of any real foundation. The characteristics of China’s economic and financial system (the result of the development process pursued, which is markedly different from any other situation) give rise to a very specific international financial insertion and exposure, which can hardly constitute a threat to stability of the same, unlike what happened in Southeast Asia, South Korea, Russia or Brazil.
Brief Paper 1/1999: Condicionantes culturais e históricas das reformas económicas pós-crise asiática: o caso da Coreia do Sul
This document focuses on points related to Confucianism (philosophy still reigning in Korea) and its influence on the management of companies. It is believed that this philosophy, combined with historical constraints, has influenced, in recent times, certain economic practices in the country, with special emphasis on the period of the Asian economic crisis. It is also attempted to ascertain the limits of current reforms dictated by the IMF based on cultural issues. Focused are also points related to the relationship of Koreans with foreigners. Finally, it is believed that these factors need to be taken into account in a broader analysis of prospects and trends in the Korean economy.
Communication at the CEsA 1997 Seminar: The Problem of Development – Historicity and Current Contributions in a Transdisciplinary Perspective, Conference “Democratic Construction and ‘Governance’ in Africa”, 23 May 1997.