Arquivo de Globalisation and Development Cooperation - Page 4 of 5 - CEsA

Globalisation and Development Cooperation

Sector Privado Inovação e ODS

Sector privado, inovação e ODS


In Sector privado, inovação e ODS, Luís Pais Bernardo explores the reasons why companies can and should adopt business models aligned with the SDGs, in partnership with international cooperation actors. Partnerships are key to this transformation; today, business economic activity tends to move along global value chains in which the intervention of international cooperation for development, around the 2030 Agenda, will have an increased impact. In this context, the inclusive and responsible management of the procurement of services and products on a global scale by companies becomes increasingly important. Partnerships, global value chains and procurement of goods and services are the three areas explored in this report.

 

Abstract:

The central role of the private sector in international development cooperation is one of the innovations of the 2030 Agenda. In 2014, UNCTAD estimated the annual funding gap for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at US$2.5 billion. Following the Busan summit and the conclusions of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the capabilities, resources and skills of the private sector are no longer viewed with suspicion, but are seen as central to achieving the 17 SDGs. Innovation, as a pillar of the private sector in the 20th century XXI, is the new paradigm. In this report, we explore the reasons why companies can and should adopt business models aligned with the SDGs, in partnership with international cooperation actors. Partnerships are key to this transformation; today, business economic activity tends to move along global value chains in which the intervention of international cooperation for development, around the 2030 Agenda, will have an increased impact. In this context, the inclusive and responsible management of the acquisition of services and products on a global scale by companies, assumes an increasing importance. Partnerships, global value chains and procurement of goods and services are the three areas explored in this report.

 

Quotation:

Bernardo, Luís Pais (2020). Sector privado, inovação e ODS. Lisboa: CEsA – Centro de Estudos sobre África e Desenvolvimento/ISEG. URL: https://www.repository.utl.pt/handle/10400.5/20053

 

Access the article here.

The Cluster as a theoretical and practical tool for Portuguese International Cooperation for Development: the cases of Mozambique and Angola

The Cluster as a Theoretical and Practical Tool for Portuguese International Cooperation for Development: The cases of Mozambique and Angola


Abstract:

The Cluster as a theoretical and practical tool for Portuguese International Cooperation for Development: the cases of Mozambique and Angola seeks to provide a contribution towards knowledge of the theory and practical effects of the new instrument in the hands of Portu¬guese cooperation for development – clusters in cooperation – both in re¬gard to the countries receiving international aid and in terms of the effect that its creation and implementation may have, through what we can call the “boomerang effect”, on the reform of public and private cooperation institutions in Portugal, above all at the Instituto de Apoio ao Desenvol¬vimento (the Development Support Institute – IPAD). As for the theoretical side, we maintain that it is only the connection of this concept to benchmarking, as it is taken to mean in the reform of public administration currently underway, that will turn it into a real poli¬cy measure, as opposed to virtual measures that are announced and never put into practice. Then it can provide an innovative contribution to the re¬form of public institutions and the non state actors who make up the field for Portuguese cooperation, which operates within the current framework of international consensus about the area, and the public administration reform policy of the current government. In terms of practical operations, we maintain that that this should be achieved by a flexible model that is perfectly feasible and not in any way Utopian. With this model, cooperation programmes can be developed which are the tailor made for the priorities in each country. This can be carried out by using the methodology of partnership and the evaluation of those results that give the best quality and are the most participative possible in all the phases of identification, conception, implementation and evaluation. This means keeping in mind the Portuguese political op¬tions and those of the partner countries, as well as the coherence, consis¬tency and institutional capacity of both sides. Experiences are needed of other countries that finance cooperation, and reference must be made to the most advanced cluster in Portugal – the project for the Island of Mozambique – as well as putting forward proposals for making the clusters operational. These can form a template of what Portugal can set out for the countries with which it is coopera¬ting, and can then also be extended to what we think could be the trans¬formations in Portuguese institutions of the “field” in the light of the ideas expressed here.

 

Quotation:

Sangreman, C., coord. (2017). The Cluster as a theoretical and practical tool for Portuguese International Cooperation for Development: the cases of Mozambique and Angola. Lisboa: ISEG – CEsA & CEI-ISCTE/IUL.

Dialética do acomodatismo Brasileiro

Dialética do Acomodatismo Brasileiro


Abstract:

The capitalist world-economy is immersed in a generalised inertia. A movement of slow accumulation, low investment, limited growth rates, which comes about through intense pressure on the levels of inequalities historically existing. Brazil is not alien to the tensions of this movement. Dialética do acomodatismo Brasileiro presents the elements that characterize what we call the structure of Brazilian accommodation. The research showed that the recent accommodation of the Brazilian economy was expressed in the relative loss of its productive capacity, in the performance of the volume of imports and in the deterioration of its labour market. The Brazilian economic dynamics of income and wealth concentrating development was covered by: 1. a trajectory of industrial activities, without setting up an industrialisation process as such; 2. a continuous advance of agro-economic activities in a process of primarisation of the export roster which expands and asserts itself as a kind of perpetual mode; and 3. a labour market structured towards precarious conditions and labour relations and the reproduction of inequalities. From the accommodationist perspective presented here, the IA-Br showed that the recent accommodation of the Brazilian economy was due to a significant performance of the external sector, to the relative but not significant loss of its productive capacity and to the upsurge of its labour market, which, added to the recent political-institutional alterations, characterise the Brazilian Accommodation Structure.

 

Quotation:

Moreira, Marcelo José (2021). “Dialética do acomodatismo Brasileiro”. Comunicação apresentada no VIII Congresso de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Universidade Estadual de Goiás (Cepe|UEG), Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Anápolis

A emergência da identidade "Raça" no contexto das empresas europeias em África

Brief Paper 4/1999: A emergência da identidade “Raça” no contexto das empresas europeias em África


Abstract:

Transnational Connections” is the significant title of a book by the Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (1996), whose analysis focuses on the problem of the multiple intercultural encounters which globalisation provides, namely at the business level. The internationalisation of the Portuguese economy suffered a significant delay and “missed the opportunity” to follow the classic rules which governed the internationalisation of the North American economy, from the post-war period, and of the European economy in the 60s and 70s. At that time, a company internationalised by choice, as soon as it had a solid base in its home country, and it was mainly important for it to obtain economic, financial and legal information on the target investment country. The globalisation of markets, a process that had already begun at the end of the 1960s, but which has greatly accelerated in the last decade, especially since the fall of the so-called World Socialist System, has also introduced innovations at this level. Nowadays, companies are often obliged to internationalise themselves or risk disappearing and the value of information and knowledge has grown exponentially (Santos, 1997; Costa; 1997). It is no longer enough to obtain general data on the various eligible markets, it is necessary to have in-depth knowledge of variables that go far beyond the cost of factors or the rules of repatriation of capital, because today, in the face of the standardisation of technologies and the ease of reproduction of processes, competitiveness is ensured by originality and this depends heavily on the human factor, especially in contexts where capital is not abundant. A emergência da identidade “Raça” no contexto das empresas europeias em África (The emergence of the “Race” identity in the context of European companies in Africa) was prepared for a paper on race at the CEsA 1999 Seminar: The problematic of development – history and current contributions from a transdisciplinary perspective, Conference on Strategic Identities for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: gender and race, 23rd June 1999.

 

Quotation:

Calapez, Ana Célia. 1999. “A emergência da identidade “Raça” no contexto das empresas europeias em África”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 4-1999

Identidades estratégicas para o desenvolvimento na África Subsahariana : o género

Brief Paper 3/1999: Identidades Estratégicas para o Desenvolvimento na África Subsahariana: O género


Abstract:

In the current context of globalisation, the African continent is seriously marginalised, which makes it necessary to reflect on development problems in order to question and identify analytical instruments capable of dealing with the complex dynamics of identities and processes that are currently interacting in African I-markets. The process of globalisation has made visible realities, ways of being and acting which until recently were only vaguely recognised in restricted contexts or even ignored through indifference. The emergence of phenomena with a global dimension, such as environmental threats or major pandemics, has given renewed importance to diversity, both biological and cultural, not only because diversity itself is the basis of life, but because in the face of global threats, action must also be global and based on cooperation. This situation calls for the need to develop a more open way of managing difference, taking advantage of it rather than seeing it as an obstacle. If we consider that one of the major barriers to global action are the difficulties of communication between different systems, which act and think differently and even assign different meanings to the same actions and identical reasoning, then we have to introduce variables in our work that help to make some of these disparities intelligible and thus reduce the noise and improve or even provide communication. In this context, interculturality becomes compulsory and enables a joint approach to identity phenomena apparently as disparate as gender and race, because in both cases we are dealing with groups that have historically assumed a peripheral role and a vulnerable position in terms of the correlation of forces with other dominant groups, sharing biological specificities and specific patterns of behaviour and meaning attribution. Identidades Estratégicas para o Desenvolvimento na África Subsahariana: O género (Strategic identities for development in Sub-Saharan Africa: gender) was presented at the 1st Portugal – China Congress organised by the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro in Vila Real, 19-23 April 1999.

 

Quotation:

Grassi, Marzia. 1999. “Identidades estratégicas para o desenvolvimento na África Subsahariana : o género”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 3-1999.

China: Um Risco para o Sistema Financeiro Internacional?

Brief Paper 2/1999: A China: Um risco para o sistema financeiro internacional?


Abstract:

The much publicized bankruptcy of G1T1C (Guangdong International Trust and Investment Corporation) in October 1998 coincided with a period of extraordinary turmoil in international financial markets. It was the first time that a financial institution in the R.P. of China, which – it was admitted – enjoyed an implicit guarantee from the Chinese authorities, was allowed to “fall”. This bankruptcy caused relatively significant losses (not yet fully quantified) in Western financial institutions creditors of GITIC. On the other hand, at the same time, the pressure on the dollar and the Hong Kong stock market was taking on extreme proportions, leading the authorities of that PRC Special Administrative Region to similarly extreme responses. Due to these facts, there was no lack of those who considered that China could be the next and decisive episode in the emergence of a situation of financial crash that would eventually extend to the world scale. This perception is, however, devoid of any real foundation. The characteristics of China’s economic and financial system (the result of the development process pursued, which is markedly different from any other situation) give rise to a very specific international financial insertion and exposure, which can hardly constitute a threat to stability of the same, unlike what happened in Southeast Asia, South Korea, Russia or Brazil. China: Um Risco para o Sistema Financeiro Internacional? was presented at the 1st Portugal – China Congress organised by the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro in Vila Real, 19-23 April 1999.

 

Quotation:

Quintaneiro, Luís. 1999. China: Um Risco para o Sistema Financeiro Internacional? Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 2-1999

Acordo de cooperação cambial entre Portugal e Cabo Verde

Brief Paper 4/1998: Acordo de Cooperação Cambial entre Portugal e Cabo Verde


Abstract:

An Exchange Cooperation Agreement was recently signed between the Republics of Portugal and Cape Verde. This agreement, which had been under negotiation for some time, was presented by the two signatory countries as a corollary to the exemplary nature of Luso-Cape Verde relations, especially in the area of economic and financial cooperation, and as an instrument for strengthening bilateral economic ties, especially as regards the intensification of trade and investment flows. But it is also an important milestone in the framework of the CPLP, in the sense that its results may come to enhance other bilateral or multilateral agreements. The Agreement, signed in March this year, will only come into force within a maximum of three months from the date it is signed, by which time the Exchange Cooperation Agreement Commission, the entity responsible for defining and reviewing the operating conditions, as well as for managing the Agreement, should already be performing its duties. If the specific operating conditions are not yet known, which does not allow a more concrete analysis of its virtualities, however, the characteristics which define its philosophy may be identified in the text of the Agreement itself. A summary of Acordo de cooperação cambial entre Portugal e Cabo Verde (Agreement on Exchange Rate Co-operation between Portugal and Cape Verde), entitled Moeda une Portugal e Cabo Verde (Currency unites Portugal and Cape Verde), was published in Informação Lusófona (UCCLA), no. 6, April 1998, p. 2.

 

Quotation:

Estêvão, João. 1998. “Acordo de cooperação cambial entre Portugal e Cabo Verde”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 4-1998.

As fronteiras em África: contributo para uma reflexão crítica

Brief Paper 1/1996: As Fronteiras em África: Contributo para uma reflexão crítica


Abstract:

The role played by political borders in Africa (predominantly inherited from the colonial period) has merited some critical reflections by some authors, both in terms of their role in the construction of the new states and in terms of their impact and consequences in the lives of the populations of the cross-border regions. In As fronteiras em África: contributo para uma reflexão crítica we have two texts, by Daniel Bach and Emmanuel Grégoire, from which short extracts are presented. First, however, a necessarily succinct exposition of their respective theses: For Daniel Bach, Regionalisation tends to be done not by dismantling the barriers that constitute borders, but by taking advantage of the business opportunities originated by these very borders. A second thesis of Bach is that the Structural Adjustment Programmes, by reducing fiscal or customs differences between states, tend to transfer to the external borders of the continent those same business opportunities or the search for them…) and thus accelerate the criminalisation of flows. A first question arises here: the nature of this “regionalisation” of which Daniel Bach speaks, and the text of this author which we quoted above is as follows: “Transstate flows and circuits exercise functions of social regulation and accumulation which are vital for populations faced with the disintegration of official circuits and the regression of the territorial framework of the state”. As for Grégoire, the text offered for our reflection here is taken from a historical and anthropological account of a phenomenon which at first sight is predominantly economic and has the suggestive title: “The Smuggling Paths “Far from being an obstacle to trade, the border which has separated the Hausa country for over twenty years is, on the contrary, a stimulus… On an economic level, its dynamic effects outweigh the negative effects…”.

 

Quotation:

Statter, Guilherme da Fonseca. 1996. “As fronteiras em África: contributo para uma reflexão crítica”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 1-1996.

Como analisar a governação

Brief Paper 1/1995: Como Analisar a Governação


Abstract:

Although the issue of Como analisar a governação is still at the beginning of the discussion in the scientific community, a set of criteria seems to be emerging, little by little, as consensual. For some of them, there is still the problem of which indicators to use, how to quantify them or what normative scale to define in order to assess them, and there are few practical applications of analysis to specific countries. And research needs to be done. The criteria for evaluating governance can be summarised in five groups, which can be applied to the notion of the Contract State and a softer version of the Arena State, where the interest groups that hold power assume the position of the medieval lord with the obligation to look after the welfare of the people, but never forgetting that his family and those close to him come first. Nobody is fully represented by another, and the further away that other is culturally and physically, the weaker the link. Thus, the population that feels that the Members of Parliament in Lisbon or Strasbourg are distant from its problems, tends socially to behave in defence, attack or seek alternatives, always with little credit for those who are far away and do not know each other.

 

Quotation:

Sangreman, Carlos. 1995. “Como analisar a governação”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief Papers nº 1-1995.

Conflict resolution interventions in the conflict cycle

Working Paper 185/2021: Conflict Resolution Interventions in the Conflict Cycle


Abstract:

The objective of this article is to describe the Conflict Resolution interventions used throughout the conflict cycle. The article first presents five levels of conflict intensity of the conflict cycle, namely the levels of Stable Peace, Unstable Peace, Conflict, Crisis, and War. Each level of conflict intensity is characterized by analyzing the variables of Galtung’s conflict triangle (behavior, attitudes, and goals), actors’ perceptions (friend, rival, and enemy), and the dominant strategy of interaction between actors (positive-sum, compromise, zero-sum, and negative-sum). Each level is illustrated with typical events associated with civil wars and wars between states and proposes threshold events of a possible change in the level of conflict intensity. The article then presents a set of Conflict Resolution approaches that can be carried out in each of the conflict intensity levels of the escalation and de escalation periods of the conflict cycle. Conflict Resolution is subdivided between interventions whose main objective is to contain violent conflict, here called Conflict Management, and interventions with a main objective of solving political problems, which can be Conflict Prevention, if they occur in the period of conflict escalation, or Conflict Termination, if they occur in the period of conflict de escalation. In Conflict Management we identify the interventions of: Crisis Management; Unilateral and Joint Internal Management; External Management in the form of Peacemaking or Peace Enforcement, and Traditional Peacekeeping. In Conflict Prevention we identify Structural and Direct Prevention. In Conflict Termination we identify Multidimensional Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding and Peace Consolidation (associated to Conflict Transformation). Additionally, we present two alternative approaches, Cosmopolitan Peace and Critical Approaches.

 

Quotation:

Sousa, Ricardo Real P. de e Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira (2021). “Conflict resolution interventions in the conflict cycle”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG Documentos de Trabalho nº 185/2021.


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