Arquivo de Política - CEsA


Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique

Working Paper 186/2022: Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique


The processes of state and nation building begin soon after independence and establish a link between them, although each has its own logic. While the nation refers to collective identity, the State refers to the existence of a central-level political authority, respected throughout the territory. As evidenced during the text, a significant part of the State structure that emerged after national independence was the result of the Portuguese colonial legacy, idealized by FRELIMO’s ruling elite and implemented as a project of formation of the “New Man”, which occurred in an imperative way and through uniformizing policies. Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique analyses the process of State and Nation building in Mozambique, whose population is characterised by a diversity of ethnicities. The first section presents a reflection on the foundations, the main actors and the actions towards the formation of the nation-state. In the second, we discuss the relationship between nationalism and socialist ideology, the latter interpreted in the post-independence period as the only path that would lead to development and to a society free from exploitation. With the 1990 constitution, a new order of political and economic liberalisation came into force. We seek to critically examine the political process underway in the country, in defiance of the dominant conceptions in the media, government, business and academic circles. To this end, we rely on bibliographic research and official documents, in addition to the experiences of two scholars who develop work in Quelimane, capital of Zambézia province in central Mozambique.



De Melo, C. M., Material Alves, G. e Martins, M. D. (2022). “Estado, Nação e Etnicidades em Moçambique”. CEsA/CSG/ISEG/ULisboa – Documentos de Trabalho nº 186/2022

A Previdência Social

A Previdência Social


The 60’s corresponded to an unequivocal progress in the institutional evolution, material and personal coverage of the Social Welfare system, in which Law 2115, which instituted the 1962 Social Welfare Reform – which was in force as the Basic Law until 1984 – is absolutely central. Statistical data corroborate this statement, and even demonstrate the growth of social spending and the growing role of the State, also as a financer and not with a mere supplementary intervention. A Previdência Social analyses the evolution of Social Welfare in the 60’s, underlining the logic of continuity between Salazar’s and Marcelo Caetano’s government. Based on the Social Welfare Reform, initiated in 1962, progress in terms of personal and material coverage was unequivocal, with the inevitable consequence of a strong growth of social expenditure throughout the decade. To this end, the universalization of the system contributed a lot, with the widening of Welfare to rural areas, already under Marcelo Caetano, which had a significant impact on the system, but also on Portuguese society. The changes in the domain of social policy fulfilled a legitimizing function of the New State in its desired evolution towards a Social State and marked the beginning of convergence with the European Welfare States. We would like to thank Professors João Freire and Álvaro Garrido for reading the initial text of this article and for their relevant contributions to its final version.



“Rodrigues, Cristina & Carolo, Daniel (2020). “A Previdência Social”. In Brito, José Maria Brandão de Brito & Santos, Paula Borges (Coords.) Os Anos Sessenta em Portugal. Duas governações, diferentes políticas públicas. Porto: Afrontamento”

Construção Democrática e Contributos Actuais numa Governance em África

Brief Paper 1/1998: Construccíón Democrática y Gobernabilidad en Africa


African political players are today faced with a double challenge: building democratic regimes and, at the same time, equipping them with governments capable of managing the transformations necessary for development. A close look at this phenomenon reveals that democracy building has generally privileged the electoral dimension of the process rather than the underlying social and political dynamics. Moreover, the adoption of Western democratic standards has generated a certain determinism based on the belief in a linear evolution of African societies towards a model of universal democracy. In this sense, it seems necessary to make a clear distinction between democratic principles and the universality of the model. Accepting the existence of a series of democratic principles of unequivocal validity does not, of course, imply the affirmation of the validity of a model applicable to all societies. Confusion between these two dimensions seems to be at the root of certain tensions, such as that between indigenous forms of political participation and those adopted by constitutional and legislative texts based on Western sources. On the basis of the African democratic experiences of this decade, it is interesting to question the validity of the so-called “Western model” for Africa. Communication at the CESA 1997 Seminar: The Problematic of Development – History and a Transdiciplinary Perspective, Conference Construção Democrática e Contributos Actuais numa Governance em África (Democratic Construction and Current Contributions to Governance in Africa), 23 May 1997.



Comunicação no Seminário CEsA 1997: A Problemática do Desenvolvimento – Historicidade e Contributos Actuais numa Óptica Transdiciplinar, Conferência “Construção Democrática e ‘Governance’ em África”, 23 de Maio de 1997.

Women in politics : Portugal as a case study

Working Paper 173/2018: Women in Politics: Portugal as a case study


Democracy is about the power of the people. In order to sustain, implies (at least) representativeness of its major groups. When majority rules minorities, lobbies complain when not happy and some of their demands are met; but the system doesn’t turn totally in their favor if it goes against the interests of a larger assembly. When minority rules the majority, problems arise (populism against elite, for instance); and sooner or later there’s a significant shift in society. Quantity gives power. Numbers do count in Democracy. Women are the majority of the population. It was not always so, but nowadays it’s an unquestionable fact. For cultural, institutional or socioeconomic reasons they were submissive for centuries to a system that did not recognize their public activity. They were not involved in decision making and rebel against that. At first, their demands were not met. But waves are changing. As long as democracy prevails and women’s numbers and percentages won’t drop, they’ll probably continue to raise awareness to their cause, increasing their power and influence in society. The evolution of women’s empowerment is the focus of Women in Politics: Portugal as a case study, that tries to analyze the main characteristics, causes and effects of this process, based on theory and world references or statistics. Portugal was chosen as a case study for not being much researched or not sufficiently so far.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Women in politics : Portugal as a case study”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 173/2018.

Ancient roman politics – Julius Caesar

Working Paper 168/2018: Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar


Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar revisits Julius Caesar, one of the most famous conquerors of all time. Many books have been written about him, but not in a neutral way. The texts are usually attached to a political ideology. But reducing his persona to dictatorship can blind people to what he represented to his fellow Romans and who he really was as a man. Julius Caesar survived two civil wars: first led by Cornelius Sula and Gaius Mario; and then by him and Pompey Magnus. Until he was stabbed in a senate session in the Ides of March 44 BC. Julius Caesar was always loved or hated, when he was still alive and throughout history. He was a war hero, like others. He was a patrician, among many. He was a Roman dictator, but not the only one. So what did he do to get all this attention? Why did he stand out so much from the crowd? What did he represent? Julius Caesar was a man of his time, not a modern leader of the 21st century; and there are things unacceptable today that in the past would have been considered courageous or extraordinary. This text tries to explain who the man was and what he did to become so powerful in Rome.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 168/2018

Ancient roman politics the vestals – women’s empowerment

Working Paper 167/2018: Ancient Roman Politics the Vestals – Women’s empowerment


Ancient Roman Politics the Vestals – Women’s empowerment is about vestal virgins of ancient Rome. First chapter concerns goddess Vesta, her legends and what she represented. Second chapter is about who Vesta and why her priestesses were important to roman religion. Third chapter explains where they lived. Four chapter lists names of known vestals until Emperor Tiberius (a larger list is included in Appendix 2) and discusses situations involving their deaths or role model. Vestals had political and religious power in ancient Rome. Their peaceful presence at the forum was one of the first attempts (if not the first) in favor of gender equality or women’s empowerment in the public sphere. Vestals were virgin priestesses of a goddess that protected the walls of Rome with her perpetual fire, which was pure and had no statue. Their rituals were based on legends such as Amata or Rhea Silvia that, regardless of being true or not, were religious and cultural references for people’s lives and should not be neglected, because they contain information that explains why the State respected the vestals and punished them so severely.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Ancient roman politics the vestals – women’s empowerment”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG Documentos de Trabalho nº 167/2018.

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