Arquivo de Maria Sousa Galito - CEsA

Maria Sousa Galito

Terrorismo na União Europeia

Working Paper 177/2019: Terrorismo na União Europeia


The European Union (EU) has suffered several violent attacks. Terrorismo na União Europeia investigates the conceptualisation of terrorism as a political phenomenon, differentiating it from other types of organised crime, in a context of regional threats, coming from the Mediterranean, jihadism and its consequences in the EU, without forgetting issues such as social exclusion related to the current migration crisis, autonomous claims within the regional bloc and the spread of populism. The EU Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism is discussed. A critical analysis is made of the European Cybersecurity Strategy and the European Council’s New Strategic Agenda for 2019-2024 with regard to counter-terrorism. The idea is to confront legislative measures and to review precedents, within the framework of the Security Union and the Defence Union. The critical analysis of EU action is made on the basis of the challenges identified by the European Commission for the Community future, considering the Strategic Agenda 2019/2024, in a disruptive environment, in which the Community institutions have tried to be effective or even innovative and forerunners in terms of policy change.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2019). “Terrorismo na União Europeia”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG Documentos de Trabalho nº 177-2019.

Ensaio sobre política externa portuguesa

Working Paper 176/2019: Ensaio sobre Política Externa Portuguesa


In general, Portuguese foreign policy is “consolidated” and has not undergone “sudden changes of direction”. According to the national government, the founding matrix remains “well present and consolidated” although “denser, richer, broader”. What exactly does this mean? Our strategic vectors of foreign policy used to be three (Europe, Atlantic and Lusophony). Since the 1990s, some authors have admitted adding a complementary strategic pillar to the previous model. Which one? Three hypotheses. First, security, focusing on the international missions of the Portuguese Armed Forces within the framework of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), the EU (European Union) or the UN (United Nations). Secondly, cooperation, mainly technical and cultural, with Portuguese-speaking countries, but also with third countries. Thirdly, economic diplomacy, with exports, the diversification of the investment portfolio, the opening of the internal market to the world (and not only to the EU). According to specialized literature, Portuguese foreign policy is consolidated and has not undergone major changes in the last four decades. Does this mean that its matrix, variables and strategic vectors have not changed in recent years? Has the geopolitical paradigm changed? Ensaio sobre Política Externa Portuguesa confronts the possibility of a change of course, with that of the creative reformulation of the original vision. 



Galito, Maria Sousa (2019). “Ensaio sobre política externa portuguesa”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 176/2019.

Sahel e Magreb : ensaio sobre o norte de África, uma região em convulsão

Working Paper 175/2019: Sahel e Magreb: Ensaio sobre o Norte de África, uma região em convulsão


Sahel e Magreb : ensaio sobre o norte de África, uma região em convulsão focuses on the Sahel and on the Maghreb. The objective is to assess whether these regions are in crisis, with common problems affecting their countries; if there are specific characteristics limiting their development, and conflicts are justified by religious or economic issues, cultural patterns or local challenges. The study is macro. Debates the role of Fragile States with high violence, economic and social vulnerability, power struggles and fighting for natural resources. The paper is subdivided into two chapters. The first compares the Sahel and Maghreb regions, with a short analysis for each country that constitutes them, since the spaces are very related to each other, since traffickers transit along the trade routes of the ancient caravans of the desert caravans, or less watched over by law enforcement agents or controlled by guerrillas or or controlled by guerrilla or terrorist groups. Maps and statistical tables are offered for appropriate comparisons. The second chapter is about the influence of the Arab Spring in North Africa, with reference its main causes and consequences. Given that these states are considered fragile by the international community, the question is whether they are failures and why they have serious problems of governance, internal stability or the stability of their borders. It assesses the fight against terrorism, in a sensitive in a sensitive context where former guerrilla fighters are still active, part of militias or terrorist groups or claiming possession of natural resources, reclaiming for themselves the sources of income and the channels of distribution. sources of income and channels of distribution. Different types of violence or organised crime are also differentiated crimes.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2019). “Sahel e Magreb : ensaio sobre o norte de África, uma região em convulsão”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 175/2019.

Women in politics : Portugal as a case study

Working Paper 173/2018: Women in Politics: Portugal as a case study


Democracy is about the power of the people. In order to sustain, implies (at least) representativeness of its major groups. When majority rules minorities, lobbies complain when not happy and some of their demands are met; but the system doesn’t turn totally in their favor if it goes against the interests of a larger assembly. When minority rules the majority, problems arise (populism against elite, for instance); and sooner or later there’s a significant shift in society. Quantity gives power. Numbers do count in Democracy. Women are the majority of the population. It was not always so, but nowadays it’s an unquestionable fact. For cultural, institutional or socioeconomic reasons they were submissive for centuries to a system that did not recognize their public activity. They were not involved in decision making and rebel against that. At first, their demands were not met. But waves are changing. As long as democracy prevails and women’s numbers and percentages won’t drop, they’ll probably continue to raise awareness to their cause, increasing their power and influence in society. The evolution of women’s empowerment is the focus of Women in Politics: Portugal as a case study, that tries to analyze the main characteristics, causes and effects of this process, based on theory and world references or statistics. Portugal was chosen as a case study for not being much researched or not sufficiently so far.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Women in politics : Portugal as a case study”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 173/2018.

Ancient roman politics – Julius Caesar

Working Paper 168/2018: Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar


Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar revisits Julius Caesar, one of the most famous conquerors of all time. Many books have been written about him, but not in a neutral way. The texts are usually attached to a political ideology. But reducing his persona to dictatorship can blind people to what he represented to his fellow Romans and who he really was as a man. Julius Caesar survived two civil wars: first led by Cornelius Sula and Gaius Mario; and then by him and Pompey Magnus. Until he was stabbed in a senate session in the Ides of March 44 BC. Julius Caesar was always loved or hated, when he was still alive and throughout history. He was a war hero, like others. He was a patrician, among many. He was a Roman dictator, but not the only one. So what did he do to get all this attention? Why did he stand out so much from the crowd? What did he represent? Julius Caesar was a man of his time, not a modern leader of the 21st century; and there are things unacceptable today that in the past would have been considered courageous or extraordinary. This text tries to explain who the man was and what he did to become so powerful in Rome.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Ancient Roman Politics – Julius Caesar”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 168/2018

Ancient roman politics the vestals – women’s empowerment

Working Paper 167/2018: Ancient Roman Politics the Vestals – Women’s empowerment


Ancient Roman Politics the Vestals – Women’s empowerment is about vestal virgins of ancient Rome. First chapter concerns goddess Vesta, her legends and what she represented. Second chapter is about who Vesta and why her priestesses were important to roman religion. Third chapter explains where they lived. Four chapter lists names of known vestals until Emperor Tiberius (a larger list is included in Appendix 2) and discusses situations involving their deaths or role model. Vestals had political and religious power in ancient Rome. Their peaceful presence at the forum was one of the first attempts (if not the first) in favor of gender equality or women’s empowerment in the public sphere. Vestals were virgin priestesses of a goddess that protected the walls of Rome with her perpetual fire, which was pure and had no statue. Their rituals were based on legends such as Amata or Rhea Silvia that, regardless of being true or not, were religious and cultural references for people’s lives and should not be neglected, because they contain information that explains why the State respected the vestals and punished them so severely.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Ancient roman politics the vestals – women’s empowerment”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG Documentos de Trabalho nº 167/2018.

Portugal: crisis and restructuring

Working Paper 165/2018: Portugal: crisis and restructuring


Portugal is a southwestern country with a strategic triangle including two archipelagos and a territorial slice of the Iberian Peninsula. It’s a State-member of the European Union (EU) since 1986. After 2008 faced financial and economic restrain and asked for financial external help from Troika (IMF, European Commission and European Central Bank) between 2011/14. Taking that in mind, Portugal: crisis and restructuring contextualizes Portugal’s present situation and its trends for the last ten or less years. The first chapter analysis main macroeconomic indicators of Portugal, including the GDP, imports and exports specific performance, consumer price index, net lending/ borrowing by institutional sector, and sovereign ratings from the biggest international agencies. The second chapter evaluates some of the country’s inner fragilities, such as lack of industrialization and unbalanced GVA and Employment between major sectors (agriculture, services and industry), Risk of Poverty, Unemployment Rates and major demographic trends. The third chapter focus on external dependence; studies indicators in percentage of the GDP, like the Liquid External Debt, Emigrants’ Remittances, Public Transferences from and for the EU, but also the Geographical Distribution of Exports and Imports of Goods by Regions and by countries, and of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) by Countries. The fourth chapter examines the overseas AICEP network, the Global Peace Index, The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index and Portuguese indicators like the revenue and number of bed nights by country of origin. A final chapter has a summarized critical assessment about the hypothesis of the EU becoming a federation and Portugal’s part in it. The presentation proposes an approach to political economy and international relations. It begins by analyzing the main Portuguese macroeconomic indicators in the last years, taking into account internal weaknesses and the degree of external dependence. Afterwards, tries to assess national development on a globalized stage. It lists main current challenges from a geopolitical and geo-economic point of view and how difficult it is to face them. It also tests the hypothesis that Portugal is changing patterns, from crisis and loss of credibility to recovery, and some explanations are given to explain it.



Galito, Maria Sousa (2018). “Portugal: crisis and restructuring”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/ CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 165/2018.

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