We use a gravity model to inquire about the factors that influence the amount of public procurement awarded by developing countries with funding from Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), based on 169 000 contracts. We reach four main conclusions. First, procurement disproportionately benefits firms of low- and middle-income countries and not those of MDBs’ larger shareholders. Second, firms of uppermiddle- income countries can compete successfully with those of developed countries. These two conclusions are in line with MDBs’ development mandate. However, we also find that certain MDBs favour domestic firms and that having good diplomatic relations matters when awarding contracts.
Martínez-Galán, E., e Proença, I. (2023). Who benefits from the procurement financed by multilateral development banks? Journal of International Development, 1– 27. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3803
A persistent concern raised by member states of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is that Timor-Leste’s readiness for membership is not enough, as Dili, the smallest economy in Southeast Asia, may not be able to sign and implement key commitments, nor to participate in all ASEAN institutions and work programmes. Since its formal request for membership in 2011, Timor-Leste has recently stepped up its efforts for ASEAN membership, with the initial technical support of the Japan International Cooperation Agency and, particularly, the enhanced support of the Asian Development Bank. In 2019, there has been a step change in momentum towards accession, with clear ASEAN statements signalling progress in this regard. The first ever ASEAN fact-finding mission to Timor-Leste to assess the country’s potential for membership concluded successfully in September 2019. Two more fact-finding missions are planned for 2020. We assess in this paper Timor-Leste’s readiness for membership in the three pillars of the ASEAN community: economic, socio-cultural, and political security. In Ready or not? The ultimate push of Timor-Leste to join ASEAN, we assess how recent developments address the concerns historically raised by some ASEAN member states about Timor-Leste’s membership. We conclude that the Cambodian and, particularly, the Indonesian presidencies of the ASEAN in 2022 and 2023 could be an important landmark for Timor-Leste’s accession to the Association.
Martínez-Galán, E. (2021). ‘Ready or not? The ultimate push of Timor-Leste to join ASEAN’. Chapter 4B, pp. 405-435 in Leandro, F.J.B.S., dos Santos, P.P. and Li, Y. (eds) China and Portuguese-speaking Small Island States: From sporadic bilateral exchanges to a comprehensive multilateral platform. City University of Macau. Macao. China. ISBN 978-99981-956-3-9