Arquivo de Economia e Política do Desenvolvimento - CEsA

Economia e Política do Desenvolvimento

Portugal’s Inequality Regime: Many contradictions, multiple pressures


Abstract:

This paper applies the concept of inequality regime, in the tradition of the Regulation School, to the analysis of the patterns and drivers of socioeconomic inequality in Portugal in the last few decades. Key empirical patterns are identified with respect to income inequality, top and bottom incomes, wealth inequality, monetary poverty and non-commodified provision of basic goods. We then discuss several underlying processes and mechanisms, namely the capital-labour relation, classification struggles, financialisation, redistribution, and welfare, to account for the identified empirical patterns. We conclude that Portugal’s inequality regime is remarkably contradictory and argue that the country’s success in curbing most measures of inequality in recent times is especially vulnerable to a variety of pressures.

 

Quotation:

Abreu, A. (2023). “Portugal’s Inequality Regime: Many contradictions, multiple pressures”. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 130:127-156

Tourism Competitiveness in Cape Verde: The case of Tarrafal/Santiago


Abstract:

The study of competitiveness has been constantly gaining importance in recent decades. Cape Verde Government elected Tarrafal as a development hub of tourism competitiveness. Since the empirical validation of competitiveness Cape Verde is still shortfall, so the current research aims to analyze the determinants of competitive advantage of tourism in Tarrafal. To achieve this goal, it was adopted a qualitative methodology based on a sample of the major 136 key players in the tourism area and the creation of four working groups during Tarrafal Technical Days (1 and 2 July 2022) to better discuss these issues. The discussion of the nal conclusions from each working group, allowed to systematize some major development alternatives to Tarrafal as a strategic tourism hub. Major implications for managers were also presented, such as the importance to develop and reinforce cultural traditions, reinforce entrepreneurship in order to maximize the tourism chain value through the implementation of better infrastructures (better roads, a maritime port as well as an aerodrome), diversify the tourist o er based on di erent segments (culture, nature, sports, events, remote working among others) and bene t other regions and municipalities around the county.

 

Quotation:

Sarmento, Eduardo Moraes e José Luís Mascarenhas Monteiro (2023). ” Tourism competitiveness in Cape Verde : the case of Tarrafal/Santiago”. Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento, 42:117-132

Lições de macroeconomia: uma introdução


Abstract:

The book that is now being published, in the form of lessons in macroeconomics, is the result of 3 years of work in teaching the discipline of Economics II, of the degrees in Economics, Mathematics Applied to Economics and Management and General Studies, at the Instituto Superior of Economics and Management at the University of Lisbon. These Macroeconomics Lessons are the result of a pedagogical experience of teaching an introductory-level subject and the objective is to facilitate the transmission of knowledge in a subject that is nonetheless complex, but which is indispensable in the training of any economist or manager. The approach presented in this book reflects three methodological options that aim to make it more attractive and user-friendly for its readers. The first is the search for the greatest possible clarity and simplification in the presentation of concepts and theories. The second is the purpose of making the distinction between the model of reality and reality understood. The third is the inclusion of the Portuguese economic reality in virtually all chapters, either as a reference for the discussion of concepts, which acquire a concrete and quantified dimension in this way, or as a specific object of macroeconomic analysis. Aimed primarily at students starting their university education, these Lessons do not fail to go further in dealing with the issues, and may be useful to all those who, regardless of their motives, wish to acquire an introductory vision of contemporary macroeconomic analysis.

Quotation:

Mendonça, António (Coordenador) e Vitor Magriço … [et al.] .(2021) . “Lições de macroeconomia: uma introdução”. Edições Silabo, Lisboa: p. 451.

Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa

Working Paper 189/2023: Fragilities and shocks effects on households and communities in West Africa


Abstract:

Shocks are drivers of fragility yet most works on fragility in Africa use the tag “fragile state(s)” with less focus on the drivers of fragility in its institutions, states, and economies. Shocks are cardinal to the entrenchment or stability of any system. The Covid-19 pandemic revealed how fragile the world is including the “developed” or “advanced” systems. Today, households, businesses, and communities in most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa suffer the effects of a triple whammy (climate change, the pandemic and Russia/Ukraine War) including effects of history and an unfavourable global system all of which leaves them in hunger, poverty and vulnerable conditions. Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa used secondary sources to revisit the effects of these shocks on households, and communities in West Africa through the lens of common resources. The recent shocks effects prevalent in all these countries is higher than reported and would affect West Africa´s growing population in the foreseeable future with the absence of safety nets or effective interventions. The absence of shocks preparation in the subregion is not sustainable and adds up to the sustenance of the revolving circle of fragility in the subregion.

 

Quotation:

Agulonye, U.V.P. 2023. “Fragilities and Shocks Effects on Households and Communities in West Africa“. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA/CSG – Documentos de Trabalho nº 189/2023

Desafios para Moçambique 2022

Desafios para Moçambique, 2022


Abstract:

This issue of Desafios para Moçambique (2022) comes as the country faces enormous challenges – the war in Cabo Delgado, with some signs of expansion into other provinces; the Rovuma basin gas extraction and liquefaction projects, which realise some 24 Challenges for Mozambique 2022 Introduction of the greatest challenges in Mozambique’s economic history; the lingering effects of the global crisis, the bursting and implosion of the economic bubble, of which the sovereign debt crisis was a manifestation, and the social and economic after-effects of the covid-19 pandemic. These challenges and crises stimulated research and resulted in lessons, some of which are developed in this issue. Recently ended in Maputo, the trial of some of the state agents and private agents involved in the illicit international financial transactions that resulted in the odious debts. What was already clear before – that these illicit transactions are a reflection of more general dynamics of expropriation, privatisation and financialisation of the state for private accumulation of capital, even if this is done at heavy social costs – has, if possible, become clearer. The hypothesis that the legal process, which we had the opportunity to follow for about a year and a half, only touched on the recipients of commissions for corruption and influence peddling, the executors of the great default against the public purse, was confirmed.

 

Quotation:

Castel-Branco, C.N., Ali, R., Chichava, S., Forquilha, S., Muianga, C. (2022) Desafios para Moçambique, 2022. IESE. Maputo, Moçambique. ISBN: 978-989-8464-58-3

Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species

Tackling Food Insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: The Nutritional, Agricultural and Environmental Values of the Legume Species


Abstract:

Legume species are important food sources to reduce hunger and deal with malnutrition; they also play a crucial role in sustainable agriculture in the tropical dry islands of Cabo Verde. To improve the knowledge of the heritage of plant genetic resources in this Middle Income Country, Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species had three main goals: (i) to provide a checklist of food legumes; (ii) to investigate which species are traded in local markets and, based on field surveys, to compare species for their chemical, phenolic, antioxidant, and nutritional composition; and (iii) to discuss the agronomic value and contribution to food security in this archipelago. Our results revealed that 15 species are used as food and 5 of them are locally traded (Cajanus cajanLablab purpureusPhaseolus lunatusPhaseolus vulgaris, and Vigna unguiculata). The role of these species as sources of important minerals, antioxidants, and nutritional components for food security is highlighted, and the native ones (Lablab purpureus and Vigna unguiculata) stand-out as particularly well-adapted to the climate of these islands, which are already experiencing the adverse effects of climate change. We conclude that the sustainable use of these genetic resources can contribute to the reduction of hunger and poverty, thus meeting some challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 

Quotation:

Brilhante, M., Varela, E., Essoh, A.P, Fortes, A., Maria Cristina Duarte, M.C., Monteiro, F., Ferreira, V., Correia, A. M., Duarte, M.P; Romeiras, M. M (2021). Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species. Nutrients, 13. MDPI. Pag. 17. https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/10/2/206

Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde

Challenges of a small insular developing state: Cape Verde


Abstract:

The objective of Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde is to present a diagnosis of tourism in Cape Verde and point out the major challenges for sustainable development in Cape Verde. To carry out this study, 19 in-depth interviews (22 April and 3 July 2019) were conducted with managers from different sectors in Cape Verde. This number of interviews allows us to reach significant conclusions. The Cape Verdean authorities must take into account that the islands are faced with a series of shortages of accommodation and infrastructure, little diversification of tourism products, high costs of water and energy, communications and infrastructure in addition to a limited quality of professional training. In order to achieve a hub economy, Cape Verde needs to implement a strong strategy to capture foreign domestic investment (FDI) supported by a strong diplomatic strategy. Like many other SIDS, Cape Verde suffers from an enormous shortage of capital, technology, qualified human resources, high-level organizational capacity, and markets. FDI brings in resources and, in doing so, has direct, indirect, and induced effects on all sectors of economic and social life, as well as the improvement of macroeconomic variables, like GDP, the balance of payments, employment, income and government revenue.

 

Quotation:

Sarmento, E., & Loureiro, S. M. (2021). Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde. Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento, 36(1), 125-134. https://doi.org/10.34624/rtd.v1i36.4476

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries


Abstract:

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries explored the effect of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in a panel of twenty-nine countries from the European Union (EU) from 2010 to 2020. The method of moments quantile regression (MM-QR) was used, and the ordinary least squares with fixed effects (OLSfe) was used to verify the robustness of the results. The MM-QR support that in all three quantiles, economic growth causes a positive impact on GHGs. In the 50th and 75th quantiles, energy consumption causes a positive effect on GHGs. BEVs in the 25th, 50th, and 75th quantiles have a negative impact on GHGs. The OLSfe reveals that economic growth has a negative effect on GHGs, which contradicts the results from MM-QR. Energy consumption positively impacts GHGs. BEVs negatively impacts GHGs. Although the EU has supported a more sustainable transport system, accelerating the adoption of BEVs still requires effective political planning to achieve net-zero emissions. Thus, BEVs are an important technology to reduce GHGs to achieve the EU targets of decarbonising the energy sector. This research topic can open policy discussion between industry, government, and researchers, towards ensuring that BEVs provide a climate change mitigation pathway in the EU region.

 

Citação:

Fuinhas, J.A., Koengkan, M., Leitão, N.C., Nwani, C., Uzuner, G., Dehdar, F., Relva, S., Peyerl, D. (2021). Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries. Sustainability, 13 (24), 13611. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413611

The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions

The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions


Abstract:

Corruption reflects a set of illegal activities that jeopardize the smooth functioning of economies, society, and climate and environmental issues. The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions tests the relationships between economic growth, corruption, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions using panel data for European countries, namely Portugal, Spain, Italy, Ireland, and Greece, from 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, this research uses the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), panel dynamic least squares (DOLS), and panel two-stage least squares estimator (TSLS). Considering the variables utilized in the research and the panel unit root test, we observed that the variables are integrated I (1) in the first difference. The variables of corruption, economic growth, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions are cointegrated in the long run, using the Pedroni and Kao residual cointegration test arguments. The methodology of Dumitrescu–Hurlin to test the causality between carbon dioxide emissions, corruption, economic growth, and renewable energy shows that there is unidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and corruption and economic growth and corruption. The results suggest that the corruption index and economic growth have a statistically significant positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. However, renewable energies and international trade reduce climate change and improve the environmental quality.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C. (2021b). The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions (MDPI) 2021, 9 (2), 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9020062

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emission in Portugal

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal


Abstract:

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal considers the relationship between trade intensity, energy consumption, income per capita, and carbon dioxide emissions from 1970–2016 for the Portuguese economy. Considering the arguments of monopolistic competition, the article tests the hypotheses of trade and energy consumption on climate change. We use the autoregressive distributed lag-ARDL model, quantile regression, and cointegration models such as fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), canonical cointegration regression, and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) as an econometric strategy. The econometric results have support with the literature review. The variables used in this research are integrated with the first differences, as indicated by the unit root test. The empirical study proves that trade intensity contributes to environmental improvements. However, energy consumption presents a positive impact on CO2 emissions. The econometric results also demonstrated that a sustainable environmental system exists in the long run. This paper evaluates the theoretical and empirical studies on the effects of trade on carbon dioxide emissions. The theoretical arguments of monopolistic competition models and the relationship between trade intensity and pollution emissions are evaluated, allowing justifying this empirical study’s results. The econometric results show that trade intensity contributes to improving the environment, both in the short and long term, justifying the importance of environmental regulation.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C. (2021a). Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal. Economies (MDPI) 2021,9 (1), 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9010022


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