Arquivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável - CEsA

Desenvolvimento Sustentável

Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species

Tackling Food Insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: The Nutritional, Agricultural and Environmental Values of the Legume Species


Abstract:

Legume species are important food sources to reduce hunger and deal with malnutrition; they also play a crucial role in sustainable agriculture in the tropical dry islands of Cabo Verde. To improve the knowledge of the heritage of plant genetic resources in this Middle Income Country, Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species had three main goals: (i) to provide a checklist of food legumes; (ii) to investigate which species are traded in local markets and, based on field surveys, to compare species for their chemical, phenolic, antioxidant, and nutritional composition; and (iii) to discuss the agronomic value and contribution to food security in this archipelago. Our results revealed that 15 species are used as food and 5 of them are locally traded (Cajanus cajanLablab purpureusPhaseolus lunatusPhaseolus vulgaris, and Vigna unguiculata). The role of these species as sources of important minerals, antioxidants, and nutritional components for food security is highlighted, and the native ones (Lablab purpureus and Vigna unguiculata) stand-out as particularly well-adapted to the climate of these islands, which are already experiencing the adverse effects of climate change. We conclude that the sustainable use of these genetic resources can contribute to the reduction of hunger and poverty, thus meeting some challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals.

 

Quotation:

Brilhante, M., Varela, E., Essoh, A.P, Fortes, A., Maria Cristina Duarte, M.C., Monteiro, F., Ferreira, V., Correia, A. M., Duarte, M.P; Romeiras, M. M (2021). Tackling food insecurity in Cabo Verde Islands: the nutritional, agricultural and environmental values of the legume species. Nutrients, 13. MDPI. Pag. 17. https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/10/2/206

Exploring the role of norms and habit in explaining proenvironmental behavior intentions in situations of use robots and AI agents as providers in tourism sector

Exploring the Role of Norms and Habit in Explaining Pro-Environmental Behavior Intentions in Situations of Use Robots and AI Agents as Providers in Tourism Sector


Abstract:

In a pandemic situation, with climate change around the world, studies that analyse changes in travel patterns are welcome. Exploring the role of norms and habit in explaining proenvironmental behavior intentions in situations of use robots and AI agents as providers in tourism sector combines three theories to propose a model on pro-environmental behavioural intentions, namely, the theory of planned behaviour, the value-belief-norm theory and the habit theory. This study aims to examine the role of social norms, personal norms and force of habit in explaining pro-environmental behaviour intentions. The authors collected 316 usable questionnaires from tourists in the well-known tourist location of Belem, Lisbon. Personal norms were revealed to have the strongest association with pro-environmental behaviour intentions, followed by force of habit. The study also identified different broad challenges to encourage sustainable behaviours and use them to develop new theoretical propositions and directions for future research. Finally, the authors outlined how practitioners aiming to encourage sustainable consumption behaviours can use this framework to achieve better outcomes.

 

Quotation:

“Sarmento, E., Loureiro, S. (2021). Exploring the role of norms and habit in explaining proenvironmental behavior intentions in situations of use robots and AI agents as providers in tourism sector. Sustainability. 13, 13928. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413928

Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde

Challenges of a small insular developing state: Cape Verde


Abstract:

The objective of Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde is to present a diagnosis of tourism in Cape Verde and point out the major challenges for sustainable development in Cape Verde. To carry out this study, 19 in-depth interviews (22 April and 3 July 2019) were conducted with managers from different sectors in Cape Verde. This number of interviews allows us to reach significant conclusions. The Cape Verdean authorities must take into account that the islands are faced with a series of shortages of accommodation and infrastructure, little diversification of tourism products, high costs of water and energy, communications and infrastructure in addition to a limited quality of professional training. In order to achieve a hub economy, Cape Verde needs to implement a strong strategy to capture foreign domestic investment (FDI) supported by a strong diplomatic strategy. Like many other SIDS, Cape Verde suffers from an enormous shortage of capital, technology, qualified human resources, high-level organizational capacity, and markets. FDI brings in resources and, in doing so, has direct, indirect, and induced effects on all sectors of economic and social life, as well as the improvement of macroeconomic variables, like GDP, the balance of payments, employment, income and government revenue.

 

Quotation:

Sarmento, E., & Loureiro, S. M. (2021). Desafios de um pequeno estado insular em desenvolvimento: Cabo Verde. Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento, 36(1), 125-134. https://doi.org/10.34624/rtd.v1i36.4476

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries


Abstract:

Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries explored the effect of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in a panel of twenty-nine countries from the European Union (EU) from 2010 to 2020. The method of moments quantile regression (MM-QR) was used, and the ordinary least squares with fixed effects (OLSfe) was used to verify the robustness of the results. The MM-QR support that in all three quantiles, economic growth causes a positive impact on GHGs. In the 50th and 75th quantiles, energy consumption causes a positive effect on GHGs. BEVs in the 25th, 50th, and 75th quantiles have a negative impact on GHGs. The OLSfe reveals that economic growth has a negative effect on GHGs, which contradicts the results from MM-QR. Energy consumption positively impacts GHGs. BEVs negatively impacts GHGs. Although the EU has supported a more sustainable transport system, accelerating the adoption of BEVs still requires effective political planning to achieve net-zero emissions. Thus, BEVs are an important technology to reduce GHGs to achieve the EU targets of decarbonising the energy sector. This research topic can open policy discussion between industry, government, and researchers, towards ensuring that BEVs provide a climate change mitigation pathway in the EU region.

 

Citação:

Fuinhas, J.A., Koengkan, M., Leitão, N.C., Nwani, C., Uzuner, G., Dehdar, F., Relva, S., Peyerl, D. (2021). Effect of Battery Electric Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 29 European Union Countries. Sustainability, 13 (24), 13611. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413611

The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions

The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions


Abstract:

Corruption reflects a set of illegal activities that jeopardize the smooth functioning of economies, society, and climate and environmental issues. The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions tests the relationships between economic growth, corruption, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions using panel data for European countries, namely Portugal, Spain, Italy, Ireland, and Greece, from 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, this research uses the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), panel dynamic least squares (DOLS), and panel two-stage least squares estimator (TSLS). Considering the variables utilized in the research and the panel unit root test, we observed that the variables are integrated I (1) in the first difference. The variables of corruption, economic growth, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions are cointegrated in the long run, using the Pedroni and Kao residual cointegration test arguments. The methodology of Dumitrescu–Hurlin to test the causality between carbon dioxide emissions, corruption, economic growth, and renewable energy shows that there is unidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and corruption and economic growth and corruption. The results suggest that the corruption index and economic growth have a statistically significant positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. However, renewable energies and international trade reduce climate change and improve the environmental quality.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C. (2021b). The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions (MDPI) 2021, 9 (2), 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9020062

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emission in Portugal

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal


Abstract:

Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal considers the relationship between trade intensity, energy consumption, income per capita, and carbon dioxide emissions from 1970–2016 for the Portuguese economy. Considering the arguments of monopolistic competition, the article tests the hypotheses of trade and energy consumption on climate change. We use the autoregressive distributed lag-ARDL model, quantile regression, and cointegration models such as fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), canonical cointegration regression, and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) as an econometric strategy. The econometric results have support with the literature review. The variables used in this research are integrated with the first differences, as indicated by the unit root test. The empirical study proves that trade intensity contributes to environmental improvements. However, energy consumption presents a positive impact on CO2 emissions. The econometric results also demonstrated that a sustainable environmental system exists in the long run. This paper evaluates the theoretical and empirical studies on the effects of trade on carbon dioxide emissions. The theoretical arguments of monopolistic competition models and the relationship between trade intensity and pollution emissions are evaluated, allowing justifying this empirical study’s results. The econometric results show that trade intensity contributes to improving the environment, both in the short and long term, justifying the importance of environmental regulation.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C. (2021a). Testing the Role of Trade on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal. Economies (MDPI) 2021,9 (1), 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9010022

Fresh Validation of the Low Carbon Development Hypothesis under the EKC Scheme in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain

Fresh Validation of the Low Carbon Development Hypothesis under the EKC Scheme in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain


Abstract:

Fresh Validation of the Low Carbon Development Hypothesis under the EKC Scheme in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain is in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) that address pertinent global issues. This study focuses on the need for access to clean and affordable energy consumption, responsible energy consumption, sustainable economic growth, and climate change mitigation. To this end, this paper evaluates the relevance of the renewable energy sector on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) framework in Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain for the period 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, we adopt the use of panel data over the highlighted countries. In the first step, we apply the unit root test recommended by Levin, Lin, and Chu in conjunction with ADF-Fisher, and Phillips-Perron for robustness and consistency. We found that the variables used in this study are integrated I (1) in the first difference. In the second step, we apply the Pedroni cointegration test, and Kao Residual cointegration test, and we observe that the variables are cointegrated in the long run. The generalized least squares (GLS), the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), ordinary least squares robust (OLS), and panel quantile regression are considered in this research. The econometric results validate the assumption of the environmental Kuznets curve, i.e., and there is a positive correlation between income per capita and a negative effect of squared income per capita on carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast, we observe that renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions. Finally, we also find a direct connection between the urban population and the environmental degradation in the examined blocs. These results show that in Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain, more is required to achieve environmental sustainability in the respective countries growth trajectory. Further policy prescriptions are appended in the concluding section of this study.

 

Quotation:

Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Leitão, N.C., Bekun, F., V. (2021). Fresh Validation of the Low Carbon Development Hypothesis under EKC Scheme in Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain. Energies 2021. 14(1), 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010250

The Impact of Renewable Energy and Economic Complexity on Carbon Emissions in BRICS Countries under the EKC Scheme

The Impact of Renewable Energy and Economic Complexity on Carbon Emissions in BRICS Countries under the EKC Scheme


Abstract:

Economic complexity makes it possible to assess the development of the countries, the relations of innovation, and the differentiation of products. The Impact of Renewable Energy and Economic Complexity on Carbon Emissions in BRICS Countries under the EKC Scheme considers the links between the hypotheses of the Kuznets environmental curve and economic complexity using panel data for the group of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) from 1990 to 2015. As an econometric strategy, this study considered the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), panel dynamic least squares (DOLS), fixed effects (FE), and Panel Quantile Regression. The empirical results showed that economic complexity, income per capita, renewable energy, and carbon dioxide emissions are integrated with the first difference when applying the unit root test. The arguments of Pedroni and Kao cointegration tests were also used. According to these results, the variables used in this research are cointegrated in the long run. The results validated the arguments of the EKC hypothesis, i.e., the income per capita and squared income per capita are positively and negatively correlated with CO2 emissions. Moreover, economic complexity and renewable energy aim to improve environmental damage and climate change.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C., Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Cantos-Cantos, J.M. The Impact of Renewable Energy and Economic Complexity on Carbon Emissions in BRICS Countries under the EKC Scheme. Energies 2021, 14, 4908. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164908

Innovation in development cooperation: emerging trajectories and implications for inclusive sustainable development in the 21st century

Innovation in development cooperation: emerging trajectories and implications for inclusive sustainable development in the 21st century


Abstract:

In the past twenty years, innovation has slowly, but steadily, become an important presence in development cooperation discourse and practice. The ambitious UN 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda has accelerated this trend, providing a strong framework for the main argument in favour of an innovation agenda for international development: without new ideas and innovative solutions, solving the current global development challenges will not be possible. Although this innovation-push is in line with a wider predominant view of innovation as an inherently positive force of progress, that alone does not explain when, how, and why innovation becomes a key topic in the field. This article seeks to fill this gap in the literature, providing an initial overview of innovation in development cooperation in the post-2000s. It argues, firstly, that innovation has always been part of international development policy and practice. Secondly, it links the recent strengthening of the innovation discourse to three trends in the systemic transformation of the field: the triumph of metrics-based agendas, the ICTs and digitalization revolutions, and the role of private sector actors. It concludes by critically assessing the implications of this narrative in changing the politics of innovation towards more inclusive sustainable development policies and practices.

 

Quotation:

Ana Luísa Silva (2021) Innovation in development cooperation: emerging trajectories and implications for inclusive sustainable development in the 21st century, Innovation and Development, 11:1, 151-171, DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2020.1807100

The Causality between Energy Consumption, Urban Population, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth

The Causality between Energy Consumption, Urban Population, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth.


Abstract:

This article assesses the relationship between electricity consumption and urbanisation by comparing the econometric results of distributed autoregressive lag (ARDL) and vector autoregressive lag (VAR) for the period 1960-2015. Granger causality is also applied to the Portuguese economy. In this study, we use some hypotheses that describe the link between electricity consumption, urban population, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth. The motivation of this research focuses on the relationship between electricity consumption (energy consumption) and urban population, supported by the theoretical and empirical contributions of energy and urban economics. The empirical results show that electricity consumption exhibits causality with economic growth, urban population, carbon dioxide emissions, and international trade. This research also proves that there is cointegration among all variables in the long run. Authored by Nuno Carlos Leitão e Daniel Balslobre-Lorente, this chapter (nº5) is part of the book “Econometrics of Green Energy Handbook”, which shares essential insights into the dynamic between energy innovations, environmental guidelines, and economic development, demonstrates how globalization has led to the development of greener energy technologies, paints a global picture using case studies on energy innovation in numerous countries and discusses both technological and policy aspects of green energy development.

 

Quotation:

Leitão, N.C. & Lorente, D. B. (2020): The Causality between Energy Consumption, Urban Population, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth. Springer Handbook Green Energy Series: Econometry of Green Energy- Economy and Technological and Development. Publisher: Springer.


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