Corruption reflects a set of illegal activities that jeopardize the smooth functioning of economies, society, and climate and environmental issues. The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions tests the relationships between economic growth, corruption, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions using panel data for European countries, namely Portugal, Spain, Italy, Ireland, and Greece, from 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, this research uses the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), panel dynamic least squares (DOLS), and panel two-stage least squares estimator (TSLS). Considering the variables utilized in the research and the panel unit root test, we observed that the variables are integrated I (1) in the first difference. The variables of corruption, economic growth, renewable energies, international trade, and carbon dioxide emissions are cointegrated in the long run, using the Pedroni and Kao residual cointegration test arguments. The methodology of Dumitrescu–Hurlin to test the causality between carbon dioxide emissions, corruption, economic growth, and renewable energy shows that there is unidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and corruption and economic growth and corruption. The results suggest that the corruption index and economic growth have a statistically significant positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. However, renewable energies and international trade reduce climate change and improve the environmental quality.
Leitão, N.C. (2021b). The Effects of Corruption, Renewable Energy, Trade and CO2 Emissions (MDPI) 2021, 9 (2), 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9020062
The strangest thing about this draft is that it defines an incrimination for aiding and abetting without defining the offence of money laundering itself. Italy considers the fight against money laundering to be an integral part of the fight against organised crime, in this case of the mafia type (omertà, intimidation, physical violence, etc.). Its effectiveness is mainly undermined by corruption, and the place of the fight against the mafia does not sufficiently highlight the specific nature of money laundering. The tax weapon should not be forgotten. It brought Capone down. It will still be necessary to ensure that the determination to pursue the ordinary citizen in France, sometimes arbitrarily, is transformed with equal efficiency against organised crime. Finally, the participation of banks in the process of defining new rules seems indispensable. La lutte anti-blanchment: notes de lecture sur le project de loi français served as a basis for the lecture “Mundialização, Drogas e Sistema Financeiro” (Globalisation, Drugs and the Financial System) given by Prof. Alain Wallon on 17 March as part of the Master’s in International Development and Cooperation, at the invitation of Prof. René Tapia Ormázabal, in the subject of Financial Systems and Development Finance.
Wallon, Alain. 1998. “La lutte anti-blanchment: notes de lecture sur le project de loi français”. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão – CEsA Brief papers nº 2-1998.